Published On: Fri, Feb 23rd, 2018

A vegan’s guide to reading food labels

It can be daunting at first to look at a food label and not know if it’s vegan. Don’t panic – Daisy Miceli from Veganuary shows us what we should watch out for, and includes a comprehensive list of sneaky ingredients that aren’t obviously labelled as non-vegan… 

vegan food label

A vegan’s guide to reading food labels

When first deciding to go vegan, it can sometimes be a frustrating and confusing experience trying to figure out which foods are safe to eat and which contain hidden animal ingredients. Often, before making the transition to veganism, we have no idea what was in the food we ate, and now it can seem like an impossible task reading through labels with ingredients we didn’t know existed.

Don’t worry, as we have a handy guide to help you read the labels and navigate yourself around the supermarket with ease. And since it’s better to know what we’re putting into our bodies than to go on in ignorance, reading labels at this stage is a good thing, and it won’t be forever. Very soon you’ll be fluent in this new language, and will just know why you pick up one brand over another without having to check each time.

Where to start?

Firstly, start by looking out for a vegan label on the food packaging. Many supermarkets and household food brands are now opting to mark their products as being vegan, which means going shopping has never been easier, and you can save time not having to look through a huge list of ingredients.

vegan food label

For example, stores such as Sainsbury’s, Tesco’s, and Lidl are now all using the vegan food label. Although, despite the huge amount of change in labelling over the last few years, some food companies are still playing catch up and not yet labelling things vegan, and this does not necessarily mean the product is not suitable, you just have to be a bit more clever when looking.

Is the product labelled as vegetarian?

The next thing to do is to look out for foods mark vegetarian. If the product is labelled as being vegetarian, then this is half way there. Now all you have to do is check the ingredients list to see if it contains any other animal derived products. Both dairy and eggs are allergens and legally food companies must make allergens very clear on the packaging, which will mean that dairy, eggs and all of their by-products will often be highlighted in bold or capital letters on the label, or they could appear in a separate list. If the product is vegetarian and does not seem to contain any animal derivatives, then it is more than likely vegan.

Something else to keep in mind, is that if a product states that it ‘may contain’ an animal ingredient, but does not list it on the label, then it is probably safe for you to eat, as this is something businesses have to do in order to protect themselves from litigation should someone have an allergic reaction to an ingredient that may have accidentally ended up in the product during the manufacturing process. Don’t let it put you off such products – it doesn’t mean that animal products have been flying all over the factory where they’re produced and you aren’t supporting a product containing animal products by buying them. That’s the important thing.

vegan food label

Keep in mind that this is not an exhaustive list and there are other E numbers that come from animal sources. Often the origin of the E number can be found by searching online. However, sometimes with E numbers the only way to definitively know if something is 100% vegan, is to contact the manufacture directly or only buy products that bear a vegan trademark. Many vegans take the view that life is too short to check out every single E number on the packaging of a product that’s otherwise vegan. Others are determined to ensure that they buy absolutely no animal-derived products. The stance that you take is totally up to you.

Animal ingredients

It’s important to look at the food label and check for animal ingredients. This is list of animal ingredients that can be added to food that you may not think to look out for…

  • Casein a milk protein.
  • Lactose – a milk sugar.
  • Whey – a milk by-product.
  • Collagen – from the skin, bones and connective tissues of animals such as cows, chickens, pigs and fish.
  • Elastin – found in the neck ligaments and aorta of bovine, similar to collagen.
  • Keratin – from the skin, bones and connective tissues of animals such as cows, chickens, pigs and fish.
  • Gelatine/gelatin – obtained by boiling skin, tendons, ligaments and/or bones and is usually from cows or pigs.
  • Aspic – industry alternative to gelatine; made from clarified meat, fish or vegetable stocks and gelatine.
  • Lard/tallow – animal fat.
  • Shellac – obtained from the bodies of the female scale insect tachardia lacca.
  • Honey – food for bees, made by bees.
  • Propolis – used by bees in the construction of their hives.
  • Royal Jelly – secretion of the throat gland of the honeybee.
  • Vitamin D3 – from fish-liver oil or sheep’s wool.
  • Albumen/albumin – from egg.
  • Isinglass – a substance obtained from the dried swim bladders of fish, and is used mainly for the clarification (fining) of wine and beer.
  • Cod liver oil – in lubricating creams and lotions, vitamins and supplements.
  • Pepsin – from the stomachs of pigs, a clotting agent used in vitamins.

While that may seem like a long list, there are plenty of foods that are made without any of the above ingredients and, once you know what to look out for, it becomes easy to spot non-vegan foods.

vegan food label

E Numbers

As well as this, food additives can create another issue. All food additives in Europe must be marked on the ingredients list and are given an E number, which can make navigating labels a little more difficult. Many of these E numbers are fine for vegans, however there are a few to look out for that are not cruelty-free. Some common ones to keep an eye out for include:

  • E120: Carmine, also known as cochineal, carminic acid or natural red 4. Crushed up beetles used as red food colouring.
  • E441: Gelatine. A gelling agent made from ground up animal bone and skin, often found in confectionery.
  • E542: Bone phosphate. Ground up animal bones used to keep foods moist.
  • E901: Beeswax. As the name suggests, this is wax that’s made by bees, and is used as a glazing agent.
  • E904: Shellac. Glazing agent, made from the secretions of an insect called the lac bug.
  • E910, E920, E921: L-cysteine and its derivatives. Made from animal hair and feathers, these additives are found in some breads as a proving agent.
  • E913: Lanolin. A greasy substance secreted by sheep and other woolly animals. Mostly used in cosmetics, but also used to make vitamin D3, rendering many multi-vitamins and fortified foods unsuitable for vegans.
  • E966: Lactitol. A sweetener derived from lactose, which is made from milk.

A few other things to look out for:

  • ‘Dairy-free’ or ‘lactose-free’ or ‘free from’ doesn’t necessarily mean vegan – sometimes they are not so be careful.
  • Glycerin(e)/glycerol, lactic acid, mono or diglycerides, and stearic acid can all be from slaughterhouse fat, but could also be vegan. If they are plant-derived then it should say so on the label.
  • In the USA, white sugar can be refined using animal bone char as part of the process.

Remember, if in doubt about any product it is always best to contact the manufacturer directly – that may seem like a bit of a pain, but if it’s a product that you wish to buy frequently, then it’s worthwhile in the long run. And it’s always nice to have some peace of mind!

We hope this helps you to read labels with confidence – you’ll be a pro in no time!

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